Apache Struts Apache Struts is a free open-source framework for creating Java web applications. Web applications differ from conventional websites in that web applications can create a dynamic response. Many websites deliver only static pages. A web application can interact with databases and business logic engines to customize a response. Web applications based on JavaServer Pages sometimes commingle database code, page design code, and control flow code. In practice, we find that unless these concerns are separated, larger applications become difficult to maintain. One way to separate concerns in a software application is to use a Model-View-Controller (MVC) architecture. The Model represents the business or database code, the View represents the page design code, and the Controller represents the navigational code. The Struts framework is designed to help developers create web applications that utilize a MVC architecture. The framework provides three key components: A "request" handler provided by the application developer that is mapped to a standard URI. A "response" handler that transfers control to another resource which completes the response. A tag library that helps developers create interactive form-based applications with server pages. The framework's architecture and tags are buzzword compliant. Struts works well with conventional REST applications and with nouveau technologies like SOAP and AJAX. The Apache Struts Project The Apache Struts Project is the open source community that creates and maintains the Apache Struts framework. The project consists of a diverse group of volunteers who share common values regarding collaborative, community-based open source development. The Apache Struts Project is proud to share these values with our parent organization: The Apache Software Foundation. The project is called "Struts" because the framework is meant to furnish the "invisible underpinnings" that support professional application development. Struts provides the glue that joins the various elements of the standard Java platform into a coherent whole. Our goal is to leverage existing standards by producing the missing pieces we need to create enterprise-grade applications that are easy to maintain over time. The Apache Struts Project offers two major versions of the Struts framework. Struts 1 is recognized as the most popular web application framework for Java. The 1.x framework is mature, well-documented, and widely supported. Struts 1 is the best choice for teams who value proven solutions to common problems. Struts 2 was originally known as WebWork 2. After working independently for several years, the WebWork and Struts communities joined forces to create Struts 2. The 2.x framework is the best choice for teams who value elegant solutions to difficult problems.